English Grammar for Class 8
Here, you will find all the topics covered in Class 8.
Articles are used before nouns in specific and general.
Types of articles
(a) Indefinite Articles
These articles are used before the specified or not identified as noun in a sentence.
Use of ‘A’
- Sita is a sweet girl.
- A girl in a black saree.
- A herd of cows.
Use of ‘An’
- Rajat aims to be an army man.
- Mahima is an emotional fool.
- Sushma is here to buy an Umbrella.
(b) Definite Articles
A definite article is used before the noun identifies that is specific or known.
Use of ‘The’
- The Boys are on a trip.
- A girl is waiting near the bus stop.
- He is the author of this book.
Also read: Articles for class 8
When more than two words are joined together and make a meaningful statement is called sentences.
Types of Sentences
(a) Declarative or Assertive Sentences
These sentences are a simple sentence that expresses or indicates a fact or states something about someone. It ends with full stop.
- Rohan is wearing a colorful dress.
- Pihu is very charming girl.
- Ranchi is not improving her behavior.
(b) Interrogative Sentences
Interrogative sentences that ask questions direct or indirect which is unknown. It ends with a question mark.
- Are you ready for the party?
- What is your birth sign?
- Is the dog ok?
(c) Imperative Sentences
An imperative sentence expresses advice, command, request, instruction, and a suggestion that tells somebody to do something.
- Please stand in a queue. (Request)
- Do not tear the paper. (command)
- Do not repeat the same mistake. (advice)
Also read: Sentences for class 8
3. Subject and Predicate
A sentence is made up of two parts subject and predicate.
The subject tell what and who is performing an action and tells us who and what the sentence is talking about.
- Sangeeta is my friend.
- Rama is not present here.
- Grapes are my favourite fruit.
Predicate define the action done by the subject or tells us what the subject does in a sentence.
- Jatin is preparing breakfast.
- Arun is really good at his job.
- Naman completed his task for today.
Also read: Subject and Predicate for class 8
A noun is defined as the name of a person, a place, an animal, a thing, or an idea in a sentence.
Types of Nouns
(a) Common Noun
A common noun refers to common names of people, objects, animals, or places in sentences.
- The boys are out of the hostel.
- The woman in the red dress is the host of the function.
- My friend was absent yesterday.
(b) Proper Noun
Proper nouns refer to a proper name or specific names given to a person, place or animal in a sentence.
- He will leave tomorrow morning.
- Neha is not in this batch.
- She lives in Jharkhand.
(c) Collective Noun
A collective noun refers to a group of people, animals or things collectively together in a sentence.
- A Troop of Scouts
- A rope of onions
- A pair of shoes
(d) Abstract Noun
It refers to the ideas, experiences, and feelings that cannot be seen, touched, taste or smell.
- This dish is not tasty.
- One should never lose hope.
- The material used in making this cloth is very soft.
Also read: Noun for Class 8
5. Singular and plural
(a) Countable Nouns
The nouns which can be counted in numbers our called countable nouns.
- He lost his file.
- She asked for a pen.
- Prakas gave me some chocolates to me.
(b) Uncountable Nouns
The nouns which cannot be counted in numbers are called uncountable nouns.
- He looks angry.
- Neha asked for some rice.
- Pranali looks beautiful.
(c) Singular Number
A Singular number is the form of a noun that expresses or indicates an individual person place or thing.
- The bird is flying.
- The girl is dancing.
- She lost her pencil.
(d) Plural Number
A plural number is the form of noun that expresses or indicates more than one individual person place or thing.
- The books are in my room.
- All teachers are sitting in the staff room.
- Ruhi lost her two pens.
(e) Regular Plural
The words which take “s” in the plural form they are called regular plurals.
- Dog – dogs
- Rat – Rats
- Girl – girls
- Foot – feet
- Tooth – teeth
(f) Irregular Plural
The nouns which don’t follow the simple rules are called irregular plurals.
- Moose – moose
- Salmon – salmon
- Deer – deer
- Fish – fish
- Sheep – sheep
Also read: Singular and Plural for class 7
A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun phrase or a noun expression.
- This is my bag.
- Her beautiful watch is lost.
- They attend the functions together.
Types of Pronouns
(a) Personal pronoun
Personal pronouns are pronouns that replace the particular name of a person, place, animal and thing.
- It is my bag that is lost.
- Her scarf is fallen down.
- His watch is stolen.
(b) Indefinite Pronouns
Pronouns that indicate a fixed number of person, place, or thing is indefinite pronouns.
- He adds some sugar in his tea.
- He is left with a few chocolates.
- All are getting late.
(c) Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative Pronouns is used to ask questions.
- How many books are in your bag?
- What is her favorite story?
- Did she complete her homework?
(d) Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns refer to a particular or to point out a name, place, animal, or thing.
- This a pink color saree.
- Is that necklace you like the most?
- These are your favorite clutches.
(e) Distributive Pronouns
Distributive Pronouns refer to a group or each individual person, place or thing in a group.
- Each member of the team had to contribute .
- All are my favorite cookies.
- Is any book left there on the bed?
(g) Reflexive Pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns refer to words like myself, ourselves, hiseself, and herself.
- She herself hurt her knee.
- They believe in themselves.
- He himself mops the floor.
(h) Possessive Pronouns
Possessive pronouns refer to showing ownership and belongings.
- These are my clothes.
- Her bag is lost.
- This is your project file.
(i) Relative Pronoun
A relative pronoun is used to connect with an independent clause to provide more information about the subject.
- He is the boy who broke the glass.
- She knew whose book is lost.
- He found the watch that was lost.
Also read: Pronoun for class 7
A verb is a word that expresses what is being done at what state or possesses something in a sentence.
- She folded a paper
- She is waiting for him.
- Pihu is solving the sums.
Types of Verbs
(a) Action verbs
The action verbs indicate action in the sentence that is what is subject doing or performing. It is also called a main verb or lexical verb.
- Siya is dancing.
- The boy is drinking a glass of milk.
- Tanvi is preparing for exams.
Transitive verbs are verbs that need a direct object and act on someone or something to convey the full meaning of the sentence.
- The children are sitting quietly in the garden.
- She bought a new dress yesterday.
- They both are fighting for a pen.
The intransitive verb does not need any direct object. It does not convey the whole meaning of the sentence.
- Birds are feeding.
- The girls are dancing.
- She is writing a letter.
(b) Helping verb
The helping verb is a verb that gives better information about the tense of the sentence.
- They were playing outside.
- Maya is having breakfast.
- Prerana had washed the utensils.
Primary helping verb
The primary helping verb is the be, have, and do forms of the verb.
- Nishita was reading.
- He is a nice boy.
- He is very lazy.
Modal auxiliary verb
Model auxiliary verbs adjust the condition of verbs including may, might, can, must, dare, etc
- He must be late today.
- She should work individually.
- He may come tomorrow.
(c) Linking Verbs
When a verb is supported by noun or an adjective in a sentence is linking verb.
- Rita looks beautiful.
- She is hungry.
- He is a pilot.
(d) Regular and Irregular verb
The verbs formed their past participle through ‘ed‘or ‘d‘.
- Hunt – hunted
- Visit – Visited
- Heat – heated
The verb changes when changing forms between tenses and modifying them.
- think– through
- run – ran
- go– went
(e) Finite and Non Finite Verbs
It shows agreement with a subject and can be in the present tense or past tense in a sentence.
- Prachi writes a letter.
- Aditya tries to sing.
- She goes to school.
A non-finite verb that indicates an action introduced by prepositions.
- Riya is singing a song.
- Lisa is writing a story.
- Children are laughing loudly.
Also read: Verbs for Class 7
An adverb is a word that modifies a meaning of a verb, phrase, clause or adjective in a sentence.
- She writes slowly.
- He was never late for school.
- Ruhani speaks very gently.
Types of Adverbs
(a) Adverb of manner
An adverb of manner modifies or shows us how, or in what way, or in what manner an action is taking place..
- She learns slowly.
- He blindly trusts his friends.
- She talks to her friend rudely.
(b) Adverb of place
An adverb of the place indicates where something occurs or at what place the action has been done.
- He is standing behind the tree.
- The boy is inside the house.
- The kite is high above the tree.
(c) Adverb of frequency
An adverb of frequency so how often that work is done or how frequently an action follows.
- He always wakes up on time.
- Piyush usually goes for a walk in the morning.
- Zara often goes to school.
(d) Adverb of time
An adverb of time tells at what time the action has n time taken place or an activity performed how long or how frequently.
- He is going to a picnic tomorrow.
- There is an event today.
- Yesterday she lost her diamond ring.
(e) Adverb of degree
An adverb of degree indicates how much degree or intensity of an action, an adjective, or another adverb.
- He almost completes his work.
- She is a very quiet girl in our class.
- She looks so pretty.
(f) Interrogative adverb
An interrogative adverb frames questions directly or indirectly.
- Where is she going?
- How many pencils did you buy?
- Do you know Sudeep?
(i) Relative adverbs
It is used to join sentences or two clauses that indicate their formation in the process of joining prepositions.
- Do you know when he will meet him?
- He has no idea why his father called him here.
- This is the garden where I lost my purse.
Also read: Adverbs for class 7
Prepositions are a word used to show the relationship that connects noun or pronoun with some other words in the sentence.
- He sold his all books in the market.
- She played with ball.
- The sun hides behind the clouds.
Types of Preposition
(a) Preposition of time
The preposition of time indicates a particular time or a specific time when an action takes place.
- He will meet him at 2 pm.
- His birthday comeos in October.
- She threw a party on Christmas.
(b) Prepositions of place
The preposition of the place indicates a particular place where an action takes place.
- He performs in front of an audience.
- He kept the files in the cupboard.
- They are inside the room.
(c) Prepositions of Direction or Movement
Prepositions of direction or movement indicate the direction of something to somewhere.
- The cat ran into the room.
- The thief jumped over the wall.
- He ran fast through the stairs.
Also read: Preposition for class 7
Punctuation is the marks in the sentences that make sentences clear and easy to understand.
Marks of Punctuation
(a) Full stop
A full stop represents the pause and separation in the sentence. It is used at the end of the sentence.
- He likes to watch Turkish dramas.
- A hen lives in a coop.
- My mother made some ginger buns.
Commas represent the small pause. It is used to separate and distinguish the words in the sentences.
- Seema, Trisha, and Aditi are best friends.
- Pallavi, wash the utensils.
- No, we are not going anywhere.
Semicolon is used to indicate a greater pause than the colon. It is used to join two independent clause in the sentences.
- Riya wrote; A story of a poor boy.
- Father asked; when you reach there?
- Vegetable name; Raddish, potato
(d) The colon
The Colon expresses a greater pause than the semi-colon. It is used to introduce something.
- He said: Always do the hard work.
- My Friend says: let’s have a party tonight.
- She said: I want to go to Europe.
(e) Question mark
A question is used to ask indirect and direct questions.
- How long she will stay?
- Do you know him?
- What is the cost of the book?
(f) Exclamation mark
An exclamation mark is used to express happiness, surprise or sadness suddenly in a sentence.
- Alas! He got injured.
- Wow! What a beautiful necklace.
- Hello! Myself Ruhi.
(g) Inverted Marks
An inverted mark is used to enclose the exact words of the speaker. It is used to draw concentration on words or a direct quotation.
- She said, “She will be late tonight”.
- My father asked, “To help him in the work”.
- The teacher said,” Shut the door”.
It is used to indicate possession or show ownership.
- you are – you’re
- they have – they’ve
- could not – couldn’t
It combines two similar words or two parts of words, together that make more sense when connected in a sentence.
- Stay up-to-date
- There are sixty-two people in this auditorium.
- Zafia is a quite good-looking player.
It indicates a pause or to separate additional information in a sentence.
- I’m learning two languages—Spanish and Korean.
- Come with—John Wick—on Monday.
- I love small dogs—my brother big cats.
(K) Capital letters
Every sentence first word is written as capital letters and names of months, days, religions, sects, books, historic buildings, newspapers, abbreviations, festivals, institutions, and historic events.
- Mehak is good girl.
- I will go to Japan.
- She will come on Tuesday,
Also read: Punctuation for class 7
Determiners are the words or statements that modify or indicate a noun phrase or noun expression to give more information about nouns in a sentence.
Types of Determiners
Articles are the arrival of nouns and introduce them. A, an, and the are articles.
It is used before the singular countable nouns and does not lead to any particular person or thing
Use of ‘a’
It is used in the beginning of singular nouns with a constant.
- There is a big tree of mangoes.
- He is a smart boy.
- Soham climbs a tree.
Use of ‘an’
It is used at the beginning of singular nouns with vowels.
- He likes to eat an icecream.
- There is an empty box.
- She is an intelligent girl.
Use of ‘the’
It is used before the singular and plural and with uncountable nouns.
- The girls are practicing role-play.
- He is the new monitor of our class.
- She is the best teacher.
(b) Possessive determiners
Possessive determiners are used to express belongingness or possessiveness to someone or something.
- Her favorite color is red.
- Ritu look at him.
- I lost my pen.
(c) Demonstrative determiners
Demonstrative determiners are used to express or indicate a particular point in a sentence.
- Is that your house?
- This is your bag.
- These are your clothes.
(d) Distributive determiners
Distributive determiners refer to a group or individual in a group. It is used to talk about how something is divided.
- Each girl had given their best in the competition.
- Every student had to follow rules.
- Either Neha and Nisha will dance..
(e) Interrogative determiners
Interrogative determiners are used to ask a direct and indirect questions by modifying a noun.
- Where are you from?
- Do you study french?
- Which is your favorite color?
(f) Quantifiers and Expressions
The quantifier determiners are used to express or indicate the quantity or amount of degree. It correlates with the quantity of something
- My sister gave me some money.
- They all will be coming soon.
- Only little space left in the almirah.
Also read: Determiners for class 7
Tense is the form of a verb that indicates to show a past, present or a future time of the action of a state in a sentence.
- He was reading a book.
- He is reading a book.
- He will read a book.
(a) Simple present tense
The simple present tense is used to denote an action that happens on a regular basis.
- Akshay likes singing.
- My mother cooks tasty food.
- She loves her pet cat.
(b) Present continuous tense
Present continuous tense is used to express to take place or is in the progress of taking place.
- Rohan is eating banana.
- Udhik is going to the office.
- Aanchal is eating grapes.
(c) Present perfect tense
The present perfect tense is used to indicate the the actions which were performed in past but we can see the results in present.
- Rashi has finished her homework.
- Naina has completed her work.
- Mehak has not arrived now.
(d) Present perfect continuous tense
Present perfect continuous tense is used to express or to represent an unfinished action that started in the past.
- She has been going to the temple.
- We have been waiting for long.
- They have been sitting for a long.
(e) Simple past tense
Simple past tense is used when an action that began or ended in the past or express an action taken at a particular time in the past.
- He met him last night.
- They had completed their homework.
- She had washed the utensils.
(f) Past continuous tense
Past continuous tense refers to continuing the action or explain an action that was happening at a particular time in the past.
- He was singing a song.
- Juhi was solving sums.
- Emilie was dancing.
(g) Past perfect tense
The past perfect tense is used to indicate an event that has happened in the past.
- Niya had washed the utensils.
- They had work hard.
- Parul had baked the cookies.
(h) Past perfect continuous tense
Past perfect continuous tense is used to talk about something that is started in past and continued in another time in the past.
- She had been learning for exams.
- They had been sitting outside.
- He had been raining today.
(i) Simple future tense
Simple future tenses to talk about an event that occurs in future or will to express predictions.
- They will go to the market.
- Rahul will attend the meeting.
- My mother will buy new saree.
(j) Future continuous tense
Future continuous tense action to express an action that will be going to take place at some point in time.
- She will be watching TV.
- He will be performing dance.
- They will be going to Pune.
(k) Future perfect tense
Future perfect tense is used to express an action that will be completed at same point in the future.
- Pranav will have finished the homework.
- My family will visited the function.
- She shall baked cookies for everyone.
(l) Future perfect continuous tense
Future perfect continuous tense used to talk about an action that will continue up until a point in the future.
- He will have been cleaning the room.
- She will have been working hard.
- We will have been waiting for long.
Also read: Tenses for class 7
14. Verb Auxiliaries and Modals
Auxiliary verbs are those verbs that help different verbs to form their view, condition and recognized as helping verb.
- Be (is, am, are, was, were, being, been)
- have (had, has)
- Do (did, does)
It is connected with the main verbs.
- Be (is, am, are, was, were, being, been)
- have (had, has)
- Do (did, does)
Modals are a gathering of verbs that use to specific meanings like the expression, permission, capability, notion, possibility, necessity, suggestion etc.
- He can do his work.
- She will cook foogd.
- They must take care of him.
Types of Modals
It is used to express possibility, wish, permission, suggestion, and offer.
- Sahil may visit there.
- It may rain at night.
- Tom may plan a surprise.
Might is used for requests, expressing more politeness, lack of confidence, or hesitation.
- He might come today.
- She might complete the work on time.
- He might be facing difficulty in solving.
Can is utilized to represent: ability, request, offer, possibility, permission, and suggestion in the present.
- Can you give me some rice?
- He can clean his room.
- They can reach there.
Could is managed to express ability, possibility, request, offer, suggestion, and permission in the past.
- He could reach himself there on time.
- Could you help him?
- She could arrange herself.
Shall is used to apply promise, threat, determination, resolution, willingness, or offer and shall determine threat, command, and promise.
- He shall be coming late today.
- They will visit there on time.
- He will buy a new phone.
Should is used to represent duty, responsibility, advice, probability, expectation, obligation, and mild command and would hypothetical conditions, polite requests, preferences, wishes, and habitual past activity.
- Neha should complete your work.
- She would be coming on time.
- He should not be late.
Ought to/ Used to
Ought to is used express moral obligation, strong probability.
- He ought to obey his elders.
- She used to read books.
- Monty ought to leave now.
Need and Dare
Need is used to express obligation or necessity and dare venture, defiance or challenge.
- He need follow the rules.
- How she dare to speak about him.
- They need to attend the function.
Also read: Modals for Class 7
A conjunction is a word that is joined by a link between two or more words it also connects groups of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.
- He is going for dinner.
- She worked hard as she can score good marks.
- Aly is ready for the party but his father stops him.
Types of Conjunctions
(a) Coordinating conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions are used to connect words, phrases, or sentences.
- Please have tea and biscuits.
- Sarita can choose physics or biology as an option.
- Piyush didn’t prepare yet he passed the exam.
(b) Correlative conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs to connect two words phrases or sentences.
- Either Jaya or Maaya will clean the utensils.
- She will neither go to the zoo nor to Red fort.
- He is both simple and elegant.
(c) Subordinating conjunction
Subordinating conjunctions join one clause with another which depends on its full meaning.
- You should learn to swim rather than waste your time.
- Sri will be dedicated to his studies because she wanted to clear the exam.
- Rakhi reached before me to school.
Also read: Conjunctions for class 8
Synonyms are words that have similar or nearly the same meaning as one another.
- Abolish – abrogate, annual
- Absolve – Pardon, forgive
- Busy – active, engaged
- Prompt – precise, punctual
- Precarious – doubtful, insecure
Also read: Synonyms for Class 8
Antonyms are the exact opposite meanings.
- Glory – shame, disgrace
- Harass – assist, comfort
- Humility – boldness, pride
- Mutual – separate, distinct
- Nullify – confirm, uphold
Also read: Antonyms for Class 8
An adjective can describe the nature of nouns and pronouns. It adjective can tell numbers, size, taste, color, shape, weather, texture, and feelings.
- She is looking pretty.
- His black shoes were awesome.
- He is a brave boy.
Types of Adjectives
a. Adjectives of Quality
It tells us the qualities of the noun by attaching more major information about color, size, good, smart, loud, etc. in a sentence
- Reema has long hair.
- He is very smart in our class.
- She is an honest girl.
b. Adjectives of the Quantity
Adjectives of quality tell us the quantity of something that can’t be countable,
- The little space left in the almirah,
- She asked for some rice for his sister.
- He have many novels to read.
c. Adjectives of Numbers
Adjectives of numbers tell us how many are in numbers.
- He got the first position in the race.
- She has two chocolates in her pocket.
- Trisha has five rubber bands.
d. Demonstrative Adjectives
Demonstrative adjectives tell us about particular ‘which person’ or ‘things are meant.
- Those are your books.
- These are my dresses.
- Is that your house?
e. Interrogative Adjectives
Interrogative adjectives are nouns used to ask questions.
- Which is your book?
- Whose shirt do you carry?
- What are its benefits?
f. Possessive Adjectives
It is used before a noun or a pronoun during a sentence for precise ownership.
- This is my pen.
- Your eraser is fallen down.
- Her mother cooks tasty food.
Also read: Adjectives for Class 8
20. Subject Verb Agreement
A subject carries the person or thing that is showing the activity or doing something. The verb indicates an action made in the subject or state of being in the sentence. They are the rule for using correct verbs according to singular or plural subjects in a sentence.
- You are doing your homework.
- Here is a big cinema hall,
- She is reading as well as writing.
Also read: Subject-verb Agreement for class 8
21. Active and Passive Voice
In a sentence the subject performs an action and the subject of the verb is acted upon.
In active voice it begins with the subject of the action and the object is at the end of the sentence as it is acted upon in a sentence.
- Neha cooks food.
- Pranav writes an essay.
- He will baked a cake.
In Passive voice the sentence begins with an object and ends with a subject and it is the receiver of an action.
- The food is cooked by Neha.
- An essay was written by Pranav.
- A cake will be baked by him.
Also read: Active and Passive voice for Class 8