English Grammar for Class 7
Articles are used before nouns in sentences.
- He is a good writer.
- She is eating an apple.
- The children are playing cricket.
Types of articles
(a) Indefinite Articles
The indefinite article is used before the specific noun that is unknown.
(i) A is used before the singular noun starting with the constant sound.
Use of ‘A’
- She is a dancer.
- There is a dog behind the bushes.
- They are going to attend a function.
(ii) An is used before the singular noun starting with vowel sound.
Use of ‘An’
- Pranav is an honest man.
- She likes to eat an apple daily.
- They buys an umbrella yesterday.
(b) Definite Articles
Definite article is used before the noun identify that is specific or known.
It can be use before singular nouns and plural nouns.
Use of ‘The’
- The girl is selling fruits.
- A girl is standing near the clinic.
- He is the villian of the story.
Also read: Articles for class 7
2. Vowels and Consonants
Vowels are the sound that we make when the breathe flows out through the mouth freely without being blocked. There are five vowels.
Short and long Vowels
The short vowels are -:
- “a” as in “bat”
- “e” as in “get”
- “I” as in “hit”
- “o” as in “top”
- “u” as in “cup”
The long vowels are -:
- “a” as in “cage”
- “e” as in “she”
- “i” as in “hi”
- “o” as in “rope”
- “u” as in ” cube”
Consonants are the letters that are typically used to make sounds that are either voiced or voiceless. There are 21 consonant letters.
- “t” in the beginning can make the sound of a “t”
- “t” in the middle can make the sound of “d”
- At the end of the word “t” can make the sound of a “t” or “p”
Also read: Vowels and Consonants for class 7
When a group of words join together and make a meaningful statement it is called a sentence.
- She was watching a horror movie.
- He is going to market.
- There are many people in the shop.
Jumble sentences are shuffle words we need to put them in sequence to make a complete sense of the sentence.
1. Playing/Sheetal/ is / in/ park/ the
Sheetal is playing in the park.
2. Quickly/ he/ sums/ the/ solved
He solved the sums quickly.
3. Watch/ favourite/ my/lost/ is
My favourite watch is lost.
Types of Sentences
(a) Declarative or Assertive Sentences
A declarative sentence is a simple sentence that expresses both positive or negative statements. It ends with full stop.
- The sun rises in the East.
- Nimrit is driving a car.
- The thief is caught by the police.
(b) Interrogative Sentences
Interrogative sentences that ask questions or integrated statements it ends with a question mark.
- Do you like to play football?
- Had you seen Alice?
- Where were you?
(c) Imperative Sentences
An imperative sentence expresses advice command request and suggestion.
- Please allow them. ( Request)
- Keep silence (command)
- Always speaks the truth. (advice)
Also read: Sentences for class 7
3. Subject and Predicate
Subject and predicate are the parts of a sentence without Subject and predicate the sentence will make no sense or is incomplete without conveying the entire message are making complete sense.
The subject which tell what and who is performing an action and tells us who and what the sentence is talking about it is the first part of the sentence.
- Neha is writing a letter.
- Trisha is very upset today.
- Dhruv buys a new watch.
In the above sentences Neha, Trisha, and Dhruv are subjects.
Predicate expresses the action done by the subject or tells us what the subject does or is.
- Sneha is eating breakfast.
- Arun is writing fast.
- Naman completed his work quickly.
In the above sentences, is eating breakfast, is writing fast, and completed his work quickly is the predicate in the sentence.
Also read: Subject and Predicate for class 7
A noun is defined as the name of a person, place, animal, thing, or idea in a sentence.
- Neha is a good girl.
- The teacher scolds him.
- He is going out of Delhi.
Types of Nouns
(a) Common Noun
A common noun refers to common names of people objects animals and places in the sentences.
- The boys are playing tennis.
- The woman is sitting under the tree.
- My friend was scolded by a teacher.
(b) Proper Noun
Proper nouns are a proper names given to a person, place, or animal in a sentence.
- He will leave at Monday night.
- Neha is my best friend.
- She lives in Jammu.
(c) Collective Noun
A collective noun refers to a group of people animals or things.
- A bouquet of flowers.
- A herd of sheep.
- A book of library
(d) Abstract Noun
The abstract noun refers to the ideas experiences and feeling that cannot be seen, touched, taste or smell.
- He always speaks the truth to his father.
- We should never lose hope.
- He does not have patience in himself.
(e) Countable Noun
Countable nouns are nouns that can be counted in numbers.
- The pen is on the table.
- He is reading a book.
- The chair is in the room.
(f) Uncountable Noun
Uncountable nouns are nouns that cannot be counted in numbers.
- He add some sugar in a tea.
- He wasted a glass of milk.
- It rains last night.
(g) Singular Noun
Singular nouns are nouns that refers to one individual person animal or thing.
- The baby is crying.
- A cow is eating a Grass.
- It is a big house.
(h) Plural Noun
Plural nouns are nouns that refer to a more than one individual person, animal or thing.
- The dogs are barking.
- The children are playing football.
- The girls are dancing.
(i) Masculine Noun
Masculine noun refers to the male or boy person or an animal.
- The boy is studying.
- My father is a business man.
- His nephew is very smart.
(j) Feminine Gender
Feminine gender refers to the female or girl person or an animal.
- My grandmother always tells news stories.
- My sister is very beautiful.
- My mother cooks tasty food.
(k) Common Gender Noun
Common gender noun refers to both males and females in the sentences.
- The children are playing.
- The teacher scold my best friend.
- My friend is very smart.
(l) Nominative Case
The nominative case is used as the subject of the verb in the sentence.
- Shiv ate ice cream.
- We are going for dinner.
- Neha and Pihu bought a box of chocolate.
(m) Objective Case
The objective case is used as an object of the verb in the sentence.
- She met him in the office.
- He speaks lie to Alia.
- The teacher is teaching her students.
(n) Possessive Noun
A possessive noun indicates something possessive in the sentence.
- This is Myra’s bag.
- Neetu ‘s book has lost
- Is this your book?
Also read: Noun for Class 7
5. Singular and plural
(a) Countable Nouns
The nouns which can be counted our called countable nouns.
- The books are on the table.
- The boys are waiting outside.
- He break the cups.
(b) Uncountable Nouns
The nouns which cannot be counted are called uncountable nouns.
- The oil is leaking from the car.
- He ate some rice in lunch.
- He show anger to his sister.
(c) Singular Number
A Singular number is the form of noun that denotes individual person place or thing.
- The girl is watching TV.
- The dog is barking.
- The bird is in the cage.
(d) Plural Number
Plural number is the form of nouns that denote more than one individual person place or thing.
- The children are going to the picnic.
- The boys are in the class.
- All teachers are having their meeting.
(e) Regular Plural
The words which take “s” in the plural form they are called regular plurals.
- Book – Books
- Table – Tables
- Chair – Chairs
- Group – Groups
- Boy – Boys
(f) Irregular Plural
The nouns which don’t follow the simple rules is called irregular plurals.
- Sheep – Sheep
- Cattle – Cattle
- Mouse – Mice
- Goose – Geese
- Deer – Deer
Also read: Singular and Plural for class 7
A pronoun is a substitute of noun phrase or an noun expression.
Types of Pronouns
(a) Personal pronoun
Personal pronouns are pronouns that replaces the name of a person, place, animal and thing.
- This is my favorite book.
- We are going to meet them.
- Her dress is very beautiful.
(b) Indefinite Pronouns
Pronouns that indicates a fixed number of person, place or thing is indefinite pronouns.
- We all are going to watch movie.
- There are some fruits in the basket.
- There are few cards left with him.
(c) Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative Pronouns is used to ask questions.
- How much time left?
- What are you doing?
- Whom you met in the park?
(d) Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns refer to a particular or to point out name, place, animal and thing.
- This is my new watch.
- That was my favorite icecream.
- Those are beautiful flowers.
(e) Distributive Pronouns
Distributive Pronouns refers to a group or individual person place or thing in a group.
- Each of us will going for dinner.
- Any fruits left in the kitchen.
- He had to ate some rice.
(f) Reciprocal Pronouns
Reciprocal pronouns refers two different pronouns to show a relationship together.
- Pihu and Megha hate each other.
- Tom and Peter support one another in debate.
- The members in the family love each other.
(g) Reflexive Pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns refers words like myself, ourself, himself, herself.
- Children enjoy themselves in the party.
- She herself cooked tasty food.
- He himself do his homework.
(h) Emphasis Pronouns
Emphasis pronouns refers to a emphasize a noun in a phrase.
- We ourselves complete the work.
- He himself ready to resign.
- Siya blamed herself for misbehaviour
Also read: Pronoun for class 7
A verb is a word that expresses what is being done at what state or possesses something in a sentence.
Types of Verbs
(a) Principal verbs
The principal verbs indicate the action of the sentence that is done and can stand alone. It is also called a main verb or lexical verb.
- My sister is playing.
- Neha drinks milk.
- My mother is cooking food.
(b) Transitive verbs
Transitive verbs are the verbs that take a direct object and act on someone or something to convey the full meaning of the sentence.
- Naira dances in the stadium.
- My father is a businessman.
- Pihu is cleaning the utensils.
(c) Intransitive verb
The intransitive verb does not take any direct object. It does not convey the whole meaning of the sentence.
- The boy is crying.
- Priya is dancing.
- Birds are flying.
(d) Helping verb
The helping verb is verbs give better information about the tense of the sentence.
- Mira had completed her work.
- Neha is having lunch.
- They were playing in the park.
(e) Primary Helping verb
The primary helping verb is the be, have, and do forms of the verb.
- Sirat is reading.
- He was playing.
- She had a pen.
(f) Modal helping verb
Model helping verbs include may, might, can, must, dare, etc
- He must arrive now.
- She should complete her work.
- It may rain today.
Also read: Verbs for Class 7
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb and adjective in a sentence.
- Children are playing here.
- He is very clever.
- Nikku runs too fast.
Types of Adverbs
(a) Adverb of manner
An adverb of manner modifies or changes a sentence to tell us how something happens.
- She writes quickly.
- Harry words are not clearly written.
- She cooks tasty food.
(b) Adverb of place
An adverb of the place indicates at what place the action has been done.
- Maya is standing there near the shop.
- He is inside the room.
- Her friend is standing here.
(c) Adverb of frequency
An adverb of frequency so how often that work is done.
- He often goes to school regularly.
- She might frequently visited there.
- He always washes hands before eating.
(d) Adverb of time
An adverb of time tells at what time the action has taken place.
- He will meet him as soon as possible.
- Today an event is organised in the stadium.
- He had visited there yesterday.
(e) Adverb of degree
An adverb of degree indicates how much or what degree.
- Suhani hardly attend the wedding.
- She is quite girl and the class.
- Sneha has perfectly completed her work.
(f) Interrogative adverb
An interrogative adverb ask questions.
- Why did you went there?
- How many books did you return?
- What are you doing in the evening?
(g) Adverbs of affirmation and negation
The adverbs tell about the expression exertion of something. A declares that something is true and positive.
- He can probably go there.
- I will certainly tell you.
- He almost completed the work.
(h) Exclamatory adverbs
The adverbs tell about the degree or extent of exclamations.
- How greedy he was!
- What a hilarious situation!
- Nice to meet you!
(i) Relative adverbs
It is used to join to sentences or two clauses that indicates their formation in the process of joining.
- He read whenever he got chance.
- She state where he asked her.
- How much she had to pay?
Also read: Adverbs for class 7
Prepositions are a word used to show the relationship between noun or pronoun with some other words in the sentence.
- He sold his all books in the market.
- She played with ball.
- The sun hides behind the clouds.
Types of Preposition
(a) Preposition of time
The preposition of time indicates a particular time when an action takes place.
- His birthday is on 18th February.
- The stars shines at night.
- He will come by train.
(b) Prepositions of place
Preposition of the place indicates a particular place where an action takes place.
- She is standing on the chair.
- The pen are in the cupboard.
- The teacher is standing among the students.
(c) Prepositions of directions
Prepositions of direction indicates a direction of something to somewhere.
- They are flying to Pune.
- The train passes through the tunnel.
- The ball falls into the river.
Also read: Preposition for class 7
Punctuation is the marks in the sentences that make sentences clear and easy to understand.
Marks of Punctuation
(a) Full stop
A full stop represents the pause and separation in the sentence. It is used at the end of the sentence.
- Archana is writing a letter.
- They are going outside for dinner.
- He is smart boy.
Commas represent the small pause. It is used to separate and distinguish the words in the sentences.
- Neha, Lisa, and Advika are best friends.
- Neha, clean the kitchen.
- Yes, we are going to a party.
Semicolon is used to indicate a greater pause than the colon. It is used to join two independent clause in the sentences.
- Riya wrote; an essay on nature.
- Father asked; whom you met there?
- Fruits name; apple, mango, orange
(d) The colon
The Colon expresses a greater pause than the semi-colon. It is used to introduce something.
- He said: Hard work to lead success.
- My Friend says: Always there for you any time.
- She said: I want to go Malaysia.
(e) Question mark
A question is used to ask an indirect and direct questions.
- Where did you find him?
- How longer she will stay?
- What are your qualifications?
(f) Exclamation mark
An exclamation mark is used to express happiness, surprise or sadness suddenly in a sentence.
- Alas! The old man dead.
- Wow! What a beautiful gown.
- Hello! Myself Kamini.
(g) Quotation marks
A quotation mark is used to enclose the exact words of the speaker. It is used to draw concentration on words.
- He said, “He will be late tonight”.
- My mother asked, “To clean the room”.
- The teacher said,” To maintain silence in the class”.
Also read: Punctuation for class 7
Determiners are the words or statements that modify or indicate a noun phrase or noun expression to give more information about nouns in a sentences.
Types of Determiners
Articles are used before nouns in specific or general. A, an and the are articles.
Use of ‘a’
It is used in the beginning of singular nouns with a constant.
- There is a big tree near his house.
- He is going to buy a new phone.
- She saw a bird in the cage.
Use of ‘an’
It is used in the beginning of singular nouns with vowels.
- He saw an elephant on the road.
- Neha bought an umbrella yesterday.
- She ate an Apple daily.
Use of ‘the’
It is used before the singular and plural nouns in specific or general.
- The children are going to school.
- . The boy is very lazy.
- They are going to the party.
(b) Possessive determiners
Possessive determiners are used to express belongingness or possessiveness to someone or something.
- He is wearing my shoes.
- His friend is going to marry him.
- Our team won the match.
(c) Demonstrative determiners
Demonstrative determiners are used to express or indicate a particular point in a sentence.
- These are your books.
- That is my shoes.
- Is this is your house?
(d) Distributive determiners
Distributive determiners refer to a group or individual in a group.
- Each girl had participated in the competition.
- Every student will get refreshments.
- Either Neha are Mira will perform.
(e) Interrogative determiners
Interrogative determiners are used to ask a direct and indirect questions.
- Where is your house?
- Which subject will you prefer?
- What is there in the box?
The quantifier determiners are used to express or indicate the quantity or amount of degree.
- Neha asked some to add more salt in her food.
- He gave all his money to his mother.
- Siya will stay a little longer.
Also read: Determiners for class 7
Interjections are words that have strong sudden emotions, feelings, and reactions.
- Congratulations! You win the match.
- Bravo! You passed the exam.
- Hey! Can you tell me about this.
Types of interjections
(a) Interjections of joy
The interjection of joy is used to express sudden happiness and good news.
- Wow! What a beautiful surprise.
- Yahoo! We are going for a party.
- Hurrah! My friend won the match.
(b) Interjections of approval
An interjection of approval is used to express a sudden strong approval or agreement.
- Bravo! You performed well.
- Well done! The presentation was good.
- Good! You passed the quiz.
(c) Interjections of surprise
The interjection of surprise is used to express a shock or something that had happened.
- What! He is not going.
- Ah! Why are you misbehaving.
- Oh! I forgot my keys.
(d) Interjections of attention
An interjection of attention is used to draw concentration or draw attention of someone.
- Look! That’s a beautiful dress.
- Listen! Have you seen John.
- Hush! The baby is sleeping.
(e) Interjection of sorrow
An interjection of sorrow is used to express grief or sadness or pain by someone.
- Aah! I lost my book.
- Ouch! The ball hit me badly.
- Alas! The man died.
(f) Interjection of greetings
The interjection of greeting is used to express to greet someone or indicate a warmth meeting
- Hey! How are you feeling now?
- Hello! My name is Jimmy.
- Good morning! Everyone presented here.
Also read: Interjections for class 7
Tense is the form of a verb that gives to shows past, present and a future time of the action a state it denotes in a sentence.
(a) Simple present tense
The simple present tense is used to denote an action that happens on a regular basis.
- Neha likes dancing.
- She cooks tasty food.
- He loves his pet dog.
(b) Present continuous tense
Present continuous tense is used to express an actual at the time of speaking or in progress.
- Rohan is playing with ball.
- He is going to office.
- She is eating apple.
(c) Present perfect tense
The present perfect tense is used to indicate the action begins in the past and continues in the present.
- She have finished her homework.
- She has completed her work.
- He has not arrived now.
(d) Present perfect continuous tense
Present perfect continuous tense is used to express some action started in the past and still continues at present.
- She has been cooking food for everyone.
- We have been waiting since long.
- They have been standing long.
(e) Simple past tense
Simple past tense is used when an action is happened in the past or is completed.
- He met him last night.
- They had completed their homework.
- She had washed the utensils.
(f) Past continuous tense
Past continuous tense refers to continuing the action that was happening in the past.
- He was reading a novel.
- Pihu was solving sums.
- He was cooking food.
(g) Past perfect tense
The past perfect tense is used to indicate an event that has happened in the past.
- Riya had done her homework.
- They had eaten the food.
- She had cooked the dinner.
(h) Past perfect continuous tense
Past perfect continuous tense is used to talk about something that is started in past and continued in the past.
- She had not been studying from last two years.
- They had been waiting for you.
- He had been plan surprise for her.
(i) Simple future tense
Simple future tenses to talk about an event that occurs in future.
- They will go to the stadium.
- He will attend the meeting.
- My mother will cook food.
(j) Future continuous tense
Future continuous tense action that will be takes place at some time.
- She will be going to cook food.
- He will be performing in the competition.
- They will be going to Paris.
(k) Future perfect tense
Future perfect tense is used to express an action that will be completed at same point in the future.
- She will have finished the work.
- My family will visited the temple.
- She shall cooked for everyone.
(l) Future perfect continuous tense
Future perfect continuous tense is used to express the actions that will continue in the future for a point of time.
- He will have been watching TV for last two hours.
- She will have been working in the office since last three years.
- We will have been waiting for you long.
Also read: Tenses for class 7
Models are gathering of verbs that use to specific meanings like the expression, permission, capability, notion, possibility, necessity, suggestion etc.
- He may visit there.
- Can he speak to him?
- You should obey your elders.
Types of Modals
May as used for asking and giving permission.
- He may get ready for the party.
- May I go to wash my hands.
- You may leave the room.
Might is used as asking or giving permission with uncertainty.
- He might get late.
- It might rain today.
- They might come early.
Can is used for possibility ability and asking permission with certainty.
- Can I sit with her?
- I can complete this easily.
- She can solve the sums.
Could is used as a possibility ability or making a request.
- Could you make some noodles?
- He could climb the tree.
- Could you find the keys to the room?
Shall Is used to ask for future action and suggestions.
- Vishal shall come at 8:00 p.m.
- They shall visit on Monday.
- Shall we cook food for everyone.
Should is used to give advice and make recommendations obligations and expectations.
- You should complete your work.
- He should score good marks.
- They should visit the fair.
Ought to is used about the thing which are ideal and desired.
- He ought to obey his elders.
- She ought to read books.
- Mice ought to leave now.
Must is used to express obligations giving positive and firm orders.
- He must follow the rules.
- She must finish the homework.
- They must attend the function.
Also read: Modals for Class 7
A conjunction is a word that is joined by a link between two or more words in a sentence.
Types of Conjunctions
(a) Coordinating conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions are used to connect words, phrases, or sentences.
- He likes to play badminton and football.
- She can have either tea or coffee.
- Piyu studied hard yet she failed.
(b) Correlative conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs to connect two words phrases or sentences.
- Either his father or his brother will attend the meeting.
- She will neither go Jammu nor Manali.
- My brother is both intelligent and smart.
(c) Subordinating conjunction
Subordinating conjunctions join one clause with another which it’s depends on its full meaning.
- She will complete her work after eating food.
- He may score good if he works hard.
- Although he is honest and rich.
(d) Compound conjunctions
Compound conjunctions are the groups of words or phrases that use as a conjunction.
- While breaking she hurt her leg.
- As if and as though
- As well as
Linking adverbs and transition words
The words that connect two independent clauses of sentences.
- The question is very difficult.
- The bus finally arrived.
- The boy consequently making mistakes.
Also read: Conjunctions for class 7
Homophones are words which have similar sounds but different meanings they are the words with different spellings and meanings.
- Allowed – Children are allowed to enter the hall.
Aloud- The student speaks aloud in the class.
- Ceiling – The ceiling is beautifully designed.
Sealing – The sealing of the goods was done by an officer.
- Dairy – My mother asked to bring a came from the dairy.
Diary – He writes all the schedule and his personal diary.
- Except – He brought all the things except mine.
Expect- she expect too much from her salary.
- Wait – He wait so long for her.
Weight – Her weight is 36 kgs.
Also read: Homophones for class 7
17. Synonyms and Antonyms
Synonyms are the words that have similar or nearly the same meaning to one another.
- Abolish – abrogate, annual
- Absolve – Pardon, forgive
- Busy – active, engaged
- Prompt – precise, punctual
- Precarious – doubtful, insecure
Antonyms are the exact opposite meanings.
- Glory – shame, disgrace
- Harass – assist, comfort
- Humility – boldness, pride
- Mutual – seprate, distinct
- Nullify – confirm, uphold
Also read: Synonyms and Antonyms for Class 7