Participles, Definition, Examples, Uses, Rules, Exercise or worksheet

Participles, definition, Examples of participles, Participles exercise or worksheet for students, of class 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, Uses, Rules, pdf.

Definition: A Participle is a word which has the features of the verb and adjectives. So it is known as a verbal adjective.

Participles, Definition, Examples, Uses, Rules, Exercise or worksheet


  1. I saw a woman holding a baby in her arms.
  2. Angrily speaking with me, my father asked me to leave the house.
  3. Having completed my degree, I applied for a job.

Also read:

Kinds of Participles:

There are three types of Participles in English, namely

  1. Present Participle
  2. Past Participle
  3. Perfect Participle

read all three types in detail below.

Present Participle

A Present Participle is formed with ‘ing’ form of the verb to indicate an action going on, incomplete or imperfect.

Example of Present Participle

  1. Hearing the noise, we rushed out of the restaurant.
  2. Thinking all is well, he went to bed.

In the above sentences, ‘V1 + ing’ denotes an action going on or an incomplete action.

Past Participle:

A Past Participle ends with ‘ed’, ‘d’, t or ‘n’ and is used to indicate an action as completed.

Example of Past Participle

  1. Driven by poverty, he committed suicide.
  2. Deceived by his best friend, he was left in the lurch.

In the above sentences ‘V3’ shows an action already completed before the second action took place. ‘V3’ is called Past Participle.

Perfect Participle:

A Perfect Participle is formed with ‘having’ +Verb to indicate an action as completed in the past.

Example of Perfect Participle

  1. Having done with it, they got down to work.
  2. Having rested, they started their journey again.

The above sentences show an action being completed in past. ‘Having + V3’ (Perfect Participle) is used for such purpose.

Uses of Participles

Correct use of participles, where we have to use participles, according to condition or sentence, Let’s start.

Use 1 

Participles are used as simple adjectives

Examples: Pleasing personality, Dedicated work, Interesting fil, Reputed poet, Fascination story, Developed nation.

Use 2

To govern a noun or pronoun


  1. Looking at the beautiful painting, I dropped the cup in my hand,
  2. Putting the newspaper away, I closed my eyes.
  3. Having given up her job, she stayed at home to look after her daughter

Use 3

As a complement to a verb


  1. Padma looks worried.
  2. Raju seems disappointed.
  3. We found him writing.

Use 4

Absolutely with a noun or pronoun


  1. The weather, being favourable, we went out.
  2. The Chief guest, having arrived, they started the function.
  3. He, being a skilled writer, we asked him to take part in discussion.

Note: An absolute phrase may be turned into a clause.


  1. We went out as the weather was favourable.
  2. When the chief guest arrived, they started the function.
  3. We asked him to take part in discussion because he was a skilled writer.

Note: Participle is a verbal adjective and so it should be connected with an noun pronoun. It must have a proper subject of reference.


  1. Being a rainy day, we stayed inside. (Incorrect)
  2. As it was a rainy day, we stayed inside. (Correct)
  3. Waiting for a bus, a brick fell on me. (Incorrect)
  4. When I was waiting for a bus, a brick fell on me. (Correct)

Note: Sometimes such constructions as the above are possible.


  1. Taking everything into account, 50% – concession is allowed.
  2. Technically speaking, the computer is a great invention.
  3. Considering her qualifications, she is eligible for the post.

In the examples, ‘taking everything into account‘ means ‘if we take everything into account’ and technically speaking means ‘if we speak technically.

Use 5 

To form present and past continuous tense

  • Present Continuous Tense


  1. I am teaching.
  2. We are reading.
  3. You are waiting.
  • Past Continuous Tense


  1. I was consulting the physician.
  2. We were practising music.
  3. The doctor was looking at the X-ray.

Use 6 

To form Present and Past Perfect Tense

  • Present Perfect


  1. I have stayed in America for five years.
  2. We have worked in the school since 1990.
  3. You have finished the letter just now.
  • Past Perfect


  1. I had seen Madhavi before she was married.
  2. We had reached the stadium when the match started.
  3. He started a school after he had got his degree.

Use 7 

To form Passive Voice


  1. I am informed about her marriage.
  2. We are told to wait in the drawing room.
  3. He is punished for neglecting his work.

Participles Rules

Rule 1

Since the participle is a verb-adjective, it must be attached to some noun or pronoun. In other words, it must always have a proper subject of reference.


  1. Being a very hot day, I remained in my house. (Incorrect)
  2. It being a very hot day, I remained in my house.

(Correct, because the participle ‘being’ does not have any word to which it refers)

  1. Sitting at the gate, a scorpion stung him. (Incorrect)
  2. While he was sitting at the gate, a scorpion stung him.

(Correct, because the participle ‘sitting’ does not reflect who was sitting at the gate.)

(On the face of it, the sentence reflects as if the scorpion was sitting at the gate, which is absurd.)

Rule 2

A present participle should not be used to express an action which is not simultaneous with the action of the principal verb.


  1. He flew to Washington on Sunday, arriving there on Monday evening (Incorrect)
  2. He flew to Washington on Sunday and arrived there on Monday evening. (Correct)

Rule 3

Past Participle represents a completed action or state of the thing spoken of.


(a) Blinded by the gusty winds, they fell into disorder.

(b) Insulted by his friends, he left the party.

Rule 4

Perfect Participle represents an action as complete at some time in past.


(a) Having finished their work, they left for their homes.

(6) Having signed the documents, he shook hands with the members of the delegation.

Rule 5

Such participle as regarding, concerning, considering, taking, speaking, touching owing to cannot be used with agreement with any noun or pronoun.


(a) Considering his talents, he should have done better.

(b) Regarding your problems, nothing much can be done at this moment.

Rule 6

There must be a strong subject while using participle.


(a) Returning home, the moon went behind the clouds.

(Incorrect; because, we do not know who was returning home)

While he was returning home, the moon went behind the clouds. (correct)


While returning home, he saw the moon went behind the clouds. (correct)

Participles exercise or worksheet

Exercise 1

Combine the pairs of sentences by using present participles:

1.She was reading a book.
I saw her.
2.They were playing chess.
We found them.
3.He children were playing in the garden.
We noticed them.
4.Padma was waiting for a bus.
I found her.
5.The Police were arresting him.
We watched it.
6.He was reading my diary.
I caught him.
7.She was taking out money from his pocket.
Her husband saw it.
8.Madhavi was talking to her friend.
I hear her.
9.He was directing the film.
We watched him.
10.The dog was barking at the postman.
We noticed it.
11.The boy was climbing the tree.
We saw it.
12.He was walking into the hotel.
I noticed that.
13.She was filling up the application form.
I found it.
14.They were playing cricket in the ground.
I saw this.
15.They were laughing.
They were talking.
They were drinking and eating.
I found all these things.

Exercise 2

Fill in the blanks with present participles:

  1. I saw her _____ english to school children.
  2. _____ the language, I faced many troubles in Delhi.
  3. _____ money and _____ friends, I could not know what to do.
  4. _____ along the road, we saw a dead snake.
  5. We found Krishna _____ to her sister.
  6. I noticed Madhu _____ the child into her arms.
  7. _____ through the window, he found a car in front of his house.
  8. _____ she is fit for the job, I sent her a call for the interview.
  9. _____ away the newspaper, I looked at the main gate.
  10. _____ that she love me, I asked her to marry me.

Exercise 3

Correct the following sentences:

  1. Being a fine day, we started the work.
  2. Being a holiday, I have no work to do.
  3. Having failed in the first attempt, no further attempt was made by him.
  4. Having no friends in Delhi, the streets could not be known.
  5. Waiting for a friend at the bus stop, a stone was thrown.
  6. Looking at the window, a lizard was creeping on the wall.
  7. Walking along the road, a dead body was lying on the ground.
  8. Returning from office, the cycle tire was burst.
  9. Entering the room, the light was dim.

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