Gerund, Definition, Examples, Uses, Rules, Exercise or worksheet
Gerund, definition, examples of gerund, gerund exercise or worksheet, for students, for class 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, uses, rules, pdf.
Definition: A gerund is a word ending with ‘ing’ and has the force of a noun and a verb. It is also known as verbal noun.
It is denoted by ‘V1 + ing’. It acts as a noun and a verb. Hence Gerund is also called Verb-Noun.
- Swimming is a good exercise.
- I learnt driving.
- I like watching television.
- In sentence 1, ‘Swimming‘ (V1 + ing) act as subject.
- In sentence 2, ‘Driving‘ (V1 + ing) is object.
- In sentence 3, ‘Watching‘ is the object of verb ‘like’ but if television is taken as an object, then ‘watching’ acts as verb. Thus ‘V1 + ing’ is both noun and verb.
Note: With the following verbs/adjectives/ phrases ‘V1 + ing’ is used after ‘to’.
Examples: Verb + used to, accustomed to, averse to, with a view to, addicted to, devoted to, in addition to, look forward to, object to, owing to, given to, taken to, prone to.
- He is addicted to smoking.
- I am looking forward to meeting you.
- He was used to driving on the right when he was in London.
In other words, after all the prepositions (including ‘to’), if a verb comes, the verb has to be in ‘V1 + ing’.
- I am looking forward to meeting you.
- He is given to drinking.
- He is prone to making the same mistake again and again.
- He got used to driving on the right when he was in London.
But in modals ‘V1’ comes after ‘used to’.
I used to drive on the drive.
Difference between d & e
Sentence (d): If verb comes before ‘used to’.
Sentence (e): If verb does not come before ‘used to’.
Sentence (d): It denotes a habit.
Sentence (e): It denotes a routine action of past.
Sentence (d): It can be used in any tense. The verb and its form that precedes ‘used to’ determines the tense of the sentence.
Sentence (e): It can be only in past tense.
- Writing is my profession.
- Celebrating various festivals is a common feature of the Hindu culture.
- I enjoy teaching English.
Uses of Gerund
- As subject of a verb.
- Walking is a good exercise for health.
- Reading books increases our knowledge.
- Working hard makes you successful.
- Object of a transitive verb.
- He dislikes sleeping long.
- She hates worrying about the future.
- I prefer studying computer science.
- Object of a preposition.
- I am tired of applying for jobs.
- He is afraid of telling the truth.
- My father is addicted to drinking.
- Complement of a verb
- My aim in life is becoming a writer.
- Her objective is starting a home for parentless children.
- What I want to do in life is achieving something useful for all.
- In place of infinitive.
Infinitive Gerund Teach me to speak. Teach me speaking. To advise is easier than to. Advising is easier than practicing. To read is easier than to write. Reading is easier than writing. To save is to earn. Saving is earning.
- The difference between the gerund and participle should be noted carefully.
Gerund Participle She is tired of writing. Writing letters to her husband, she forgot everything. I was prevented from meeting Padma. Meeting Padma for the first time, I decided to marry her. Respecting our parents is our duty. Respecting her words, I never tried to meet her.
- Gerund may be used like an ordinary noun.
- The planning of time helps us succeed in life.
- The collection of taxes is the duty of the Government.
- The loving of children delights me.
- The possessive Case of the noun and pronoun should be used before gerunds.
- She insisted on me paying the money. (Incorrect)
- She insisted on my paying the money. (Correct)
- Padma objected to Vijaya talking like that. (Incorrect)
- Padma objective to Vijaya’s talking like that. (Correct)
- I am sorry for him having spent life uselessly. (Incorrect)
- I am sorry for his having spent life uselessly. (Correct)
Note: The Possessive case should not be used with the gerund in the following cases:
- Gerund in the passive form.
- I was shocked at Rajiv Gandhi being assassinated. (Correct)
- We were delighted at Mother Teresa being awarded Noble Peace Prize. (Correct)
- I was shocked at Rajiv Gandhi’s being assassinated. (Incorrect)
- We were delighted at Mother Teresa’s being awarded Noble Peace Prize. (Incorrect)
- Noun denoting a lifeless thing.
- There is no chance of the snow falling. (Correct)
- There is no chance of the snow’s falling. (Incorrect)
- There is possibility of the election taking place. (Correct)
- There is possibility of the election’s talking place. (Incorrect)
Here we have 8 rules related to gerund, what things we have to know when using gerund and how to use, all we discuss in these rules. Let’s start.
A gerund is not preceded by the and followed by of.
- The playing chess is his passion. (Incorrect)
- Playing of chess is his passion. (Incorrect)
- Playing chess is his passion. (Correct)
A verbal noun is followed by of and preceded by the.
- The playing of chess is his passion
(Correct; because ‘the playing of‘ is now verbal noun and not ‘gerund‘)
Verbal noun can be used in place of Gerund. But if there are two verbal nouns or gerunds in a sentence, both should be either verbal noun or gerund to maintain parallelism.
- I dislike cooking food and the washing of clothes. (Incorrect)
- I dislike cooking food and washing clothes. (Correct)
The following verbs take gerund in place of infinitive.
differ, resent, help, suggest, deny, finish, enjoy, dislike, mind, risk, dread, remember,
avoid, postpone, start, stop, etc.
- Why did you dread going to forest without a gun?
- I do not mind having a cup of tea.
- I enjoy reading English novels.
- Have you postponed going to Delhi?
The verbal noun should be qualified by an adjective and the gerund by an adverb.
- The reading of a book rapidly is useless. (Incorrect)
- The rapid reading of a book is useless. (Correct)
- Rapid reading a book is useless. (Incorrect)
- Reading a book rapidly is useless. (Correct)
A gerund and not an infinitive is used after such verbs and particles as are followed by their appropriate prepositions.
- He insisted to go there alone. (lncorrect)
- He insisted on going there alone. (Correct)
- He prevented me to go there alone. (Incorrect)
- He prevented me from going here alone. (Correct)
The noun or pronoun governing a gerund should be put in the possessive case.
- I dislike you going there. (Incorrect)
- I dislike your going there. (Correct)
- I do not mind Ram attending the party. (Incorrect)
- I do not mind Ram’s attending the party. (Correct)
But, when a noun or a pronoun happens to be separated by several words from gerund to which it belongs, possessive case is not used.
- He begged of my favour of granting him leave. (Incorrect)
- He begged of me the favour of granting him leave. (Correct)
- The party was handicapped by one’s of their best players being ill. (Incorrect)
- The party was handicapped by one of their best players being ill. (Correct)
Gerund Exercise or worksheet
Gerund Exercise and worksheet, here we have two exercises in which you have to fill in the blank and find errors in the sentence.
Fill in the blank.
- I am fond of _____.
- She is afraid of _____.
- _____ is injurious to health.
- _____ in English is not easy.
- _____ Stories is a difficult task.
- She prevented me from _____ her.
- I prefer _____ to _____.
- I enjoy _____.
- I am confident of _____ first class.
- She is addicted to _____.
- _____ in India is very traditional and based on blind faith.
- _____ up early is a good habit.
- _____ children is a cruel act.
- She likes _____ with children.
- I am tired of _____ long distance.
Correct the following sentences.
- He is sorry for me failing in the exam.
- You cannot force me forgetting Kumari.
- There is risk of Raju’s losing the job.
- There is a chance of the rain’s coming.
- I look forward to receive a reply from Kumari.
- It is no use to wait for the bus.
- Don’t give up to teach her.
- The doing this work is very difficulty.
- Writing of a letter is a simple thing.
- She prevented me to meet her daughter.
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